Cleidocranial dysplasia: a review of the dental, historical, and practical implications with an overview of the South African experience
Stephen, Lawrence X.G.S.
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Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an uncommon but well-known genetic skeletal condition. Several hundred affected persons are members of a large extended family in the Cape Town Mixed Ancestry community of South Africa. The clinical manifestations are often innocuous, but hyperdontia and other developmental abnormalities of the teeth are a major feature and may require special dental management. Over the past 40 years, the authors have encountered more than 100 affected persons in Cape Town. Emphasis has been on dental management, but medical, genetic, and social problems have also been addressed. In this article, we have reviewed the manifestations of the disorder in the light of our own experience, and performed a literature search with emphasis on the various approaches to dental management and treatment options in CCD. Advances in the understanding of the biomolecular pathogenesis of CCD are outlined and the international and local history of the disorder is documented.