Synthesis and biological evaluations of NO-donating oxa- and aza-pentacycloundecane derivatives as potential neuroprotective candidates
Malan, Sarel F.
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In order to utilize the neuroprotective properties of polycyclic cage compounds, and explore the NO-donating ability of nitrophenyl groups, an array of compounds was synthesized where the different nitrophenyl groups were appended on oxa and aza-bridged cage derivatives. Biological evaluations of the compounds were done for cytotoxicity, neuroprotective abilities, the inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated Ca2+ influx, the inhibition of voltage-mediated Ca2+ influx, and S-nitrosylation abilities. All of the compounds showed low toxicity. With a few exceptions, most of the compounds displayed good neuroprotection and showed inhibitory activity for NMDA-mediated and voltage-gated calcium influx, ranging from high (>70%) to low (20–39%) inhibition. In the S-nitrosylation assay, the compounds with the nitro moiety as the NO-donating group exhibited low to good nitrosylation potency compared to the positive controls. From the biological evaluation of the tested compounds, it was not possible to obtain a simple correlation that could explain the results across all of the biological study domains. This can be ascribed to the independent processes evaluated in the different assays, which reiterate that neuroprotection is a result of multifactorial biochemical mechanisms and interactions. However, these results signify the important aspects of the pentacylcoundecylamine neuroprotectants across different biological study realms.