Bioactive Materials for Temporary Restorations: From Design to Applications
Perchyonok, V. Tamara
Moodley, Desigar S
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Objective: To examine the effect of Protemp4:chitosan:nanodiamond bioactive containing modified materials and compare the protective activity of the propolis (Brazilian) and copaiba oil as bio-active additives to compare with N-acetyl cysteine in vitro. Materials and Methods: The bioactive modified temporary materials were prepared by dispersion of the corresponding component with the addition of commercially available temporary restorative material (Protemp 4). The surface morphology (SEM) of the freshly prepared temporization restorative materials. The physicochemical properties such flexural and compressive strength for the bio-active modified materials have been measured and are reported. The effect of the bioactive addition to the commercially available temporary materials and nanodiamond modified variants of bioactive modified temporization materials such as Protemp 4 swelling capacity, free radical quenching ability of the material as well as release of bio-active of copaiba oil and Propolis (Brazilian) were evaluated. Results: The SEM images were obtained to characterize the microstructure of the freeze-dried gels. The surface of the modified and of the Protemp 4 materials is structurally consistent and the collapse of the surface pores may be due to artifacts (freeze-drying process). Antioxidant capacity of the Propolis (Brazilian) and Copaiba Oil have been compared in the investigation and are showed superior properties in their ability to quench the excessive free radical formation in the well calibrated BSA solubility system. The additional benefits of using Propolis (Brazilian) and Copaiba Oil lies in the well documented effects of bioactives on altering the surface of the temporary restoration by a deposition of bio-active resin of propolis or copaiba oil and therefore possibly as a barrier to Candida species and also prevents formation of the biofilm. Mean fracture strengths of the four provisional materials ranged from 75 to 160 MPa. The value for Protemp 4 material was measure to be 110±12 MPa, which is well within manufacture specification. Mean compressive strengths ranged from 180 to 300 MPa. The value for Protemp 4 material was measure to be 230±15 MPa, which is well within manufacture specification. Bioactive cumulative release profile of bioactives from copaiba and Propolis (Brazilian) containing Protemp 4 modified materials samples were investigated and quantified in PBS and pH 4. The correlation between the force and work of adhesion in all modified materials and is noticeable in all the modified Protemp 4 variants. Conclusion: The materials were tested using effective in-vitro development of “dual function temporary restorative materials. We quantified the effects of functional designer biomaterials on the dentin bioadhesion, measure compressive and flexural strength of the bio-active nano diamond containing materials in comparison to the commercially available Protemp 4 temporary material. Within the limitations of the study design chitosan: nanodiamond based additives are suitable materials for functional temporary restorative applications in vitro. Cytotoxicity data is currently being evaluated in our laboratory.