Drug resistance mutations against protease, reverse transcriptase and integrase inhibitors in people living with HIV-1 receiving boosted protease inhibitors in South Africa
Obasa, Adetayo Emmanuel
Mikasi, Sello Given
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The South African national combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) roll-out program started in 2006, with over 4.4 million people accessing treatment since it was first introduced. HIV-1 drug resistance can hamper the success of cART. This study determined the patterns of HIV-1 drug-resistance associated mutations (RAMs) in People Living with HIV-1 (PLHIV-1). Receiving first (for children below 3 years of age) and second-line (for adults) cART regimens in South Africa. During 2017 and 2018, 110 patients plasma samples were selected, 96 samples including those of 17 children and infants were successfully analyzed. All patients were receiving a boosted protease inhibitor (bPI) as part of their cART regimen. The viral sequences were analyzed for RAMs through genotypic resistance testing. We performed genotypic resistance testing (GRT) for Protease inhibitors (PIs), Reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) and Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (InSTIs). Viral sequences were subtyped using REGAv3 and COMET. Based on the PR/RT sequences, HIV-1 subtypes were classified as 95 (99%) HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) while one sample as 02_AG.