English: Language of hope or broken dream?
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In this chapter, the ESL approaches adopted by seven different literacy organisations in South Africa are described and analysed. The approaches are identified in relation to developments in the field of applied linguistics and language teaching. The methods include formalist, functional/communicative approach, competency-based approach, natural growth approach, task-based process approach, popular education and ESL approach. The chapter concludes with principles for adult, popular second language learning curriculum and training.