Evaluation of reference values of standard semen parameters in fertile Egyptian men
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The reference values of human semen, published in the WHO’s latest edition in 2010, were lower than those previously reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate reference values of standard semen parameters in fertile Egyptian men. This cross-sectional study included 240 fertile men. Men were considered fertile when their wives had recent spontaneous pregnancies with time to pregnancy (TTP) ≤12 months. The mean age of fertile men was 33.8 ± 0.5 years (range 20–55 years). The 5th percentiles (95% confidence interval) of macroscopic semen parameters were 1.5 ml for volume and 7.2 for pH. The 5th percentiles of microscopic parameters were 15 million/ ml for sperm concentration, 30 million per ejaculate for total sperm count, 50% for total motility, 40% for progressive motility, 62% for vitality, 4% for normal sperm forms and 0.1 million/ml for seminal leucocyte counts. In conclusion, fertile Egyptian men had higher reference values of sperm total motility, progressive motility and vitality, and lower reference values for total sperm counts as compared to those determined by the latest edition of the WHO laboratory manual in 2010. Other semen parameters were identical to those defined by the WHO 2010 manual.