Do lifestyle practices impede male fertility?
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Alongside an increasing prevalence of couple and male infertility, evidence suggests there is a global declining trend in male fertility parameters over the past few decades. This may, at least in part, be explained through detrimental lifestyle practices and exposures. These include alcohol and tobacco consumption, use of recreational drugs (e.g., cannabis, opioids and anabolic steroids), poor nutritional habits, obesity and metabolic syndrome, genital heat stress (e.g., radiation exposure through cell phones and laptops, prolonged periods of sitting, tight-fitting underwear and recurrent hot baths or saunas), exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (e.g., pesticide residue, bisphenol A, phthalates and dioxins) and psychological stress. This review discusses these lifestyle practices and the current evidence associated with male infertility. Furthermore, known mechanisms of action are also discussed for each of these.