Bullying and art nonadherence among South African ALHIV: Effects, risks, and protective factors
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Identifying risk and protective factors for adolescent antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence is a public health priority, given high HIV-related mortality in this population. An area that merits further investigation is the relationship between bullying victimization, mental health problems, and ART nonadherence among adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV). However, no known studies assess effects of bullying on adolescent nonadherence or risk and protective factors that could moderate this relationship.This study investigates (1) the direct longitudinal relationship between bullying exposure and ART nonadherence, and the indirect relationship via psychological distress, and (2) potential risk and modifiable protective factors moderating these pathways, among vertically and horizontally infected ALHIV who initiated treatment across 53 public health care facilities in a South African health district.