Multi-targeted directed ligands for Alzheimer’s disease: design of novel lead coumarin conjugates
Malan, Sarel F.
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Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by central nervous system insults with progressive cognitive (memory, attention) and non-cognitive (anxiety, depression) impairments. Pathophysiological events affect predominantly cholinergic neuronal loss and dysfunctions of the dopaminergic system. The aim of the current study was to design multi-targeted directed lead structures based on the coumarin scaffold with inhibitory properties at two key enzymes in disease relevant systems, i.e. acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). Conventional and microwave synthetic methods were utilized to synthesize coumarin scaffoldbased novel morpholino, piperidino, thiophene and erucic acid conjugates. Biological assays indicated that the coumarin–morpholine ether conjugate BPR 10 was the most potent hMAO-B inhibitor. The coumarin–piperidine conjugates BPR 13 and BPR 12 were the most potent inhibitors of eeAChE at 100 μM and 1 μM, respectively. Molecular modelling studies were conducted with Accelrys® Discovery Studio® V3.1.1 utilising the published hMAO-B (2V61) and hAChE (4EY7) crystal structures. Compound BPR 10 occupies both the entrance and substrate cavities of the active site of MAO-B. BPR 13 resides in both the peripheral anionic site (PAS) and the catalytic anionic site (CAS) of hAChE. This study demonstrated that the coumarin scaffold serves as a promising pharmacophore for MTDLs design.