Mechanochemical synthesis and physicochemical characterization of isoniazid and pyrazinamide co-crystals with Glutaric acid
Ngilirabanga, Jean Baptiste
Aucamp, Marique Elizabeth
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The present work reports two novel pharmaceutical co-crystals; 2:1 isoniazid-glutaric acid (INHGA) and 2:1 pyrazinamide-glutaric acid (PGA). Isoniazid and pyrazinamide are key first-line drugs used for the treatment of tuberculosis. The co-crystals were produced via solid-state and solvent assisted grinding methods. Thermal characteristics of the samples were obtained using the differential scanning calorimetry, hot stage microscopy, and thermogravimetric analyses. The morphology of the powder samples by scanning electron microscopy, structural analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and powder X-rays diffraction ensured co-crystal formation. Thermal analyses confirmed the co-crystals with new melting transitions ranging between their respective starting materials. Unique morphologies of the co-crystal particles were clear in SEM micrographs. The formation of intermolecular interactions with the co-crystal former was confirmed by the FT-IR spectral band shifting and was supported by distinct PXRD patterns of co-crystals thereby authenticating the successful co-crystal formation. In vitro solubility evaluation of the synthesized co-crystals by HPLC suggested a remarkable increase in solubility of both INH and PZA in their respective co-crystals.