Association between major coronary artery disease risk factors in the city of Cape Town firefighter and rescue service
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Background: Many CAD risk factors occur concurrently, increasing the odds of the development of other risk factors, which is particularly seen in male and older firefighters. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the association and odds ratios between the various CAD risk factors in firefighters. Methods: This study used a quantitative, cross-sectional and correlational design. A total of 124 full-time firefighters, males and females, were conveniently recruited from the City of Cape Town Fire and Rescue Service. A researcher generated questionnaire was used to collect participant sociodemographic information, and all research procedures were conducted according to the ACSM guidelines. The study took place between September and November 2019. Results: There were significant associations between hypertension and age [χ2 (1) = 18.0, p < 0.001, OR = 6.3 (95% CI: 2.6, 15.5)], hypertension and obesity [χ2 (1) = 7.9, p = 0.005, OR = 3.0 (95% CI: 1.4, 6.6)], hypertension and diabetes [χ2 (1) = 5.1, p = 0.040, OR = 4.0 (95% CI: 1.1, 14.8)], and hypertension and dyslipidaemia [χ2 (1) = 8.5, p = 0.004, OR = 3.1 (95% CI: 1.4, 6.7)], family history and central obesity [χ2 (1) = 3.9, p = 0.04, OR = 2.4 (95% CI: 0.9, 5.8)], and family history and central obesity [χ2 (1) = 3.9, p = 0.04, OR = 2.4 (95% CI: 0.9, 5.8)]. Conclusion: Increased age, central obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia increased the odds of developing other major CAD risk factors, which was predominantly apparent in male firefighters of mixed ethnicity. The City of Cape Town Fire and Rescue Service should emphasize the mitigation of these major CAD risk factors through education and behavioural modification, especially as male firefighters aged.