Built environment, selected risk factors and major cardiovascular disease outcomes: a systematic review
Kengne, Andre P.
De Villiers, Anniza
Lambert, Estelle V.
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INTRODUCTION Built environment attributes have been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Therefore, identifying built environment attributes that are associated with CVD risk is relevant for facilitating effective public health interventions. OBJECTIVE To conduct a systematic review of literature to examine the influence of built environmental attributes on CVD risks. DATA SOURCE Multiple database searches including Science direct, CINAHL, Masterfile Premier, EBSCO and manual scan of reference lists were conducted. INCLUSION CRITERIA Studies published in English between 2005 and April 2015 were included if they assessed one or more of the neighborhood environmental attributes in relation with any major CVD outcomes and selected risk factors among adults. DATA EXTRACTION Author(s), country/city, sex, age, sample size, study design, tool used to measure neighborhood environment, exposure and outcome assessments and associations were extracted from eligible studies. RESULTS Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies used both cross-sectional design and Geographic Information System (GIS) to assess the neighborhood environmental attributes. Neighborhood environmental attributes were significantly associated with CVD risk and CVD outcomes in the expected direction. Residential density, safety from traffic, recreation facilities, street connectivity and high walkable environment were associated with physical activity. High walkable environment, fast food restaurants, supermarket/grocery stores were associated with blood pressure, body mass index, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. High density traffic, road proximity and fast food restaurants were associated with CVDs outcomes. CONCLUSION This study confirms the relationship between neighborhood environment attributes and CVDs and risk factors. Prevention programs should account for neighborhood environmental attributes in the communities where people live.