Measuring Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Candida albicans biofilm formation using a real-time impedance-based system
Abrantes, Pedro Miguel dos Santos
Africa, Charlene Wilma Joyce
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Candida albicans and streptococci are amongst the most common fungal and bacterial organisms present in the oral cavity, with a growing body of evidence implicating C. albicans in increased caries severity and in the formation of the cariogenic biofilm. However, the interactive mechanisms between cariogenic streptococci and Candida are yet to be elucidated. In this study, the real-time biofilm formation of C. albicans, S. mutans and S. sanguinis was assessed individually and in combination using the xCELLigence system, an impedance-based microbial biofilm monitoring system. The impedance signal was the highest for C. albicans, followed by S. mutans and S. sanguinis. Although the streptococcal mixed adhesion was found to follow a similar trend to that of S. sanguinis, the introduction of C. albicans resulted in higher adhesion patterns, with the combined growth of S. sanguinis and C. albicans and the combination of all three species resulting in higher biofilm formation than any of the individual organisms over time. This study, the first to use impedance for real-time monitoring of interkingdom biofilms, adds to the body of evidence that C. albicans and oral streptococcal adhesion are interlinked and suggests that interkingdom interactions induce changes in the oral biofilm dynamics over time.