Diagnostic value of advanced semen analysis in evaluation of male infertility
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Conventional semen analysis is the standard of care to initially evaluate the fertility status of a male patient. However, it has some limitations and among these are failure to correctly identify the aetiology underlying fertility problems, intra- and inter-observer variability and incomplete information about sperm function. Considering these drawbacks, advanced semen tests have been developed to assess male infertility, including sperm function tests, oxidative stress (OS) and sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) tests. This review illustrates the commonly utilised sperm function techniques, along with the assays used to assess SDF and OS and their diagnostic value.