Post-impact faulting of the holfontein granophyre dike of the vredefort impact structure, south africa, inferred from remote sensing, geophysics, and geochemistry
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Better characterization features borne from long-term crustal modification processes is essential for understanding the dynamics of large basin-forming impact structures on Earth. Within the deeply eroded 2.02 Ga Vredefort Impact Structure in South Africa, impact melt dikes are exposed at the surface. In this study, we utilized a combination of field, remote sensing, electrical resistivity, magnetic, petrographical, and geochemical techniques to characterize one such impact melt dike, namely, the Holfontein Granophyre Dike (HGD), along with the host granites. The HGD is split into two seemingly disconnected segments. Geophysical modeling of both segments sug-gests that the melt rock does not penetrate below the modern surface deeper than 5 m, which was confirmed by a later transecting construction trench. Even though the textures and clast content are different in two segments, the major element, trace element, and O isotope compositions of each segment are indistinguishable.