Ethiopia: Legal response to Covid-19
Ayele, Zemelak A
Fessha, Yonatan T
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The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE),1 which was promulgated in 1995, is the supreme law of the country which, among other things, defines the Ethiopian state and government structures.2 It organized Ethiopia, a formerly unitary state, into a federation.3 The Ethiopian federation is composed of a federal government and 10 states, and one constitutionally recognised self-governing city (Addis Ababa).4 The states are Afar, Amhara, Benishangul-Gumuz, Gambella, Harari, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples (SNNP), Somali, Tigray, and Sidama. Dire Dawa, another selfgoverning federal city, does not have constitutional recognition. Ethiopia is a parliamentary system under which the Prime Minister is appointed by the lower house of parliament.The federal system is one that aims to accommodate the ethnic diversity of the Ethiopian people. The subnational units of the federation, save for the two federal cities, are structured along ethnic lines.6 Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa, the two largest and multi-ethnic cities, are under the jurisdiction of the federal government. Local government, not constitutionally recognised as a level of government, is within the exclusive competencies of the states.