Characterization and Toxicity of Hypoxoside Capped Silver Nanoparticles
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The reducing potential of plant extracts in the green synthesis of nanoparticles has been associated with their phytochemicals. Although pharmacologically inactive, a norlignan diglucoside “hypoxoside” (HP) occurs in large quantities in the extract of Hypoxis hemerocallidea (HE). In this work, HP was isolated from HE where both were used in the biosynthesis of the corresponding silver nanoparticles (HP-AgNPs and HE-AgNPs). The AgNPs were fully characterized using various physicochemical techniques and their antimicrobial and anticancer properties were evaluated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed sizes of 24.3 ± 4 nm for the HE-AgNPs and 3.9 ± 1.6 nm for the HP-AgNPs. The HE-AgNPs demonstrated enhanced anti-bactericidal effects on Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 1.95 µg/mL, competing well with the standard drug. The cytotoxic activity showed that the HE-AgNPs reduced cell viability with an IC50 of 0.81 and 4.0 µg/mL, respectively, for the U87 and U251 cells, while the HP-AgNPs displayed 0.20 and 0.55 µg/mL for both cell lines, respectively. Furthermore, while the HE-AgNPs were selective to U87 alone, the HP-AgNPs were selective to both glioblastoma cells tested. The study demonstrated the ability of a single phytoconstituent (hypoxoside), not only as the chief bioreductant in the extract, but also as a standalone reducing and capping agent, producing ultra-small, spherical, and monodispersed AgNPs with enhanced biological properties.