Effects of graphene oxide nanoparticles on the immune system biomarkers produced by RAW264.7 and human whole blood cell cultures
de Cortalezzi, Maria Fidalgo
Pool, Edmund John
Show full item recordAbstract
Graphene oxide nanoparticles (GONPs) have attracted a lot of attention due to their many
applications. These applications include batteries, super capacitors, drug delivery and biosensing.
However, few studies have investigated the effects of these nanoparticles on the immune system.
In this study, the in vitro effects of GONPs on the immune system was evaluated by exposing
murine macrophages, RAW 264.7 cells and human whole blood cell cultures (to GONPs. The effects
of GONPs on RAW cells were monitored under basal conditions. The whole blood cell cultures
were exposed to GONPs in the presence or absence of the mitogens lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and
phytohaemmagglutinin (PHA). A number of parameters were monitored for both RAWand whole
blood cell cultures, these included cytotoxicity, inflammatory biomarkers, cytokines of the acquired
immune system and a proteome profile analysis. The GONPs were cytotoxic to both RAW and whole
blood cell cultures at 500 g/mL. In the absence of LPS, GONPs elicited an inflammatory response
from the murine macrophage, RAW and whole blood cell cultures at 15.6 and 5 g/mL respectively.
This activation was further corroborated by proteome profile analysis of both experimental cultures.
GONPs inhibited LPS induced interleukin 6 (IL-6) synthesis and PHA induced interferon gamma
) synthesis by whole blood cell cultures in a dose dependent manner. In the absence of mitogens,
GONPs stimulated IL-10 synthesis by whole blood cell cultures. The current study shows that GONPs
modulate immune system biomarkers and that these may pose a health risk to individuals exposed
to this type of nanoparticle.