Candida species carriage in diabetic patients in Misrata, Libya
Esmaio, Mustafa Hassan Mustafa
Abrantes, Pedro Miguel dos Santos
Africa, Charlene Wilma Joyce
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Background: There is a paucity of studies describing the prevalence and antimicrobial profiles of Candida in Libya. Limited treatment choices in the antifungal armamentarium in public healthcare settings in Africa require a study of the prevalence and susceptibility of Candida species in Libya, where antifungals are not routinely prescribed in public healthcare settings. Methods: In this study, 170 diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) patients were examined for Candida carriage in the oral mucosa, using differential Fluka and Oxoid chromogenic media and API 32 ID C biochemical testing. Fluconazole susceptibility was investigated by disk diffusion on YNBG agar. Isolates were graded as susceptible, intermediate or resistant according to their inhibition zone measurements and microcolony scores. Results: Thirteen species were identified from 182 isolates with a frequency of 68 C. albicans, 42 C. dubliniensis, 26 C. humicola, 20 C. glabrata , 5 isolates of each C. krusei, C. tropicalis and C. kefyr, 4 C. sake, 2 C. parapsilopsis, 2 C. magnoliae and 1 isolate each of C. guilliermondii, C. globosa and C. membranifaciens. Although largely susceptible to fluconazole, C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. humicola and C. sake demonstrated an emerging resistance with intermediate to total resistance observed in all the other species except for C. magnolia and C. globosa which were both susceptible to fluconazole. Conclusion: Early recognition and treatment of rare or resistant Candida species which may be contributing to patient morbidity and mortality in Libya is imperative.