Genetic association of solute carrier transporter gene variants with metformin response
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood glucose levels and is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. It is treated with various classes of oral antidiabetic drugs, however, response to treatment is highly variable with patients failing to achieve adequate glycemic control. Treatment response variability has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which influence the pharma-cokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drug(s). The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic association of 17 SNPs and the response to metformin therapy in patients diagnosed with diabetes from the indigenous Nguni population of South Africa. One hundred and forty indigenous African patients diagnosed with T2DM were recruited and genotyped using the MassARRAY® system. Therapeutic response of patients was ascertained by a change in Hb A1c. Two SNPs (rs1801282 and rs6265) were monomorphic. All other variants were within the Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). The T allele of the SLC variant rs316009 [odds ratio (OR) = 0.25, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.01-0.09, p value = 0.044] and the CT genotype of the PCK1 variant rs4810083 (OR = 2.80, 95% CI = 1.01-7.79, p value = 0.049) were associated with an improved response to treatment after adjustment. No association was observed with post Bonferroni correction. Moreover, this study provides important additional data regarding possible associations between genetic variants and metformin therapy outcomes. In addition, this is one of the first studies providing genetic data from the understudied indigenous sub-Saharan African populations.