Hypertension in African populations: Review and computational insights
Mabhida, Sihle E.
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Hypertension (HTN) is a persistent public health problem affecting approximately 1.3 billion individuals globally. Treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH) is defined as high blood pressure (BP) in a hypertensive patient that remains above goal despite use of ≥3 antihypertensive agents of different classes including a diuretic. Despite a plethora of treatment options available, only 31.0% of individuals have their HTN controlled. Interindividual genetic variability to drug response might explain this disappointing outcome because of genetic polymorphisms. Additionally, the poor knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying hypertensive disease and the long-term interaction of antihypertensive drugs with blood pressure control mechanisms further aggravates the problem. Furthermore, in Africa, there is a paucity of pharmacogenomic data on the treatment of resistant hypertension. Therefore, identification of genetic signals having the potential to predict the response of a drug for a given individual in an African population has been the subject of intensive investigation. In this review, we aim to systematically extract and discuss African evidence on the genetic variation, and pharmacogenomics towards the treatment of HTN. Furthermore, in silico methods are utilized to elucidate biological processes that will aid in identifying novel drug targets for the treatment of resistant hypertension in an African population. To provide an expanded view of genetic variants associated with the development of HTN, this study was performed using publicly available databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, African Journal Online, PharmGKB searching for relevant papers between 1984 and 2020.